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Texas Tech University


Establishment

Administration Building (circa 1925)
The call to open a college in West Texas began shortly after the arrival of settlers in the area in the 1880s.[11][12] In 1917, the Texas legislature passed a bill creating a branch of Texas A&M to be located in Abilene.[13] However, the bill was repealed two years later during the next session after it was discovered that Governor James E. Ferguson had falsely reported the site committee's choice of location. After new legislation passed in the state house and senate in 1921, Governor Pat Neff vetoed it, citing hard financial times in West Texas. Furious about Neff's veto, some in West Texas went so far as to recommend that West Texas secede from the state.[14]
In 1923, the legislature decided, rather than a branch campus, an entirely new university would better serve the needs of the region.[15] On February 10, 1923, Neff signed the legislation creating Texas Technological College, and in July of that year, a committee began searching for a site.[14] When the members of the committee visited Lubbock, they were overwhelmed to find residents lining the streets to show support for the idea of hosting the institution.[16][17] That August, Lubbock was chosen on the first ballot over other area towns, including FloydadaPlainview, and Sweetwater.[16]
Construction of the college campus began on November 1, 1924.[12] Ten days later, the cornerstone of the Administration Building was laid in front of a crowd of 20,000 people. Governor Pat Neff, Amon G. Carter, Reverend E. E. Robinson, Colonel Ernest O. Thompson, and Representative R. M. Chitwood spoke at the event.[18] With an enrollment of 914 students—both men and women—Texas Technological College opened for classes on October 1, 1925.[19][20][21] It was originally composed of four schools—Agriculture, Engineering, Home Economics, and Liberal Arts.[15]
Texas Tech grew slowly in the early years. During the 1930s, Bradford Knapp, the university's second president, proceeded with an expansion program, which included new dormitories, the first library (now the mathematics building), a golf course, a swimming pool, paved streets and alleys, and landscaping. A proposed $80,000 allocation for a football stadium was shelved. The library won the approval of Governor James V. Allred. Because the state cut appropriations by 30% at the start of the Great Depression, President Knapp applied for assistance from the major New Deal agencies to expand Texas Tech, including the Works Progress Administration,Public Works Administration (PWA), Civil Works Administration, and the National Youth AdministrationWyatt C. Hedrick, son-in-law of Governor Ross S. Sterling, was the architect of all campus PWA projects.[22]
Military training was conducted at the college as early as 1925, but formal Reserve Officers' Training Corps training did not commence until 1936. By 1939, the school's enrollment had grown to 3,890. Though enrollment declined during World War II, Texas Tech trained 4,747 men in its armed forces training detachments.[15] Following the war, in 1946, the college saw its enrollment leap to 5,366 from a low of 1,696 in 1943.[23]

[edit]Expansion and growth

By the 1960s, the school had expanded its offerings to more than just technical subjects.[24] The Faculty Advisory Committee suggested changing the name to "Texas State University", feeling the phrase "Technological College" was insufficient to define the scope of the institution.[25] While most students supported this change, the Board of Directors and many alumni, wanting to preserve theDouble T, opposed it.[26] Other names—University of the Southwest, Texas Technological College and State University,[27] and The Texas University of Art, Science and Technology—were considered,[28] but the Board of Directors chose Texas Tech University, submitting it to the state legislature in 1964. A failed move by Governor John Connally to have the school placed into theTexas A&M University System, as well as continued disagreement and heated debate regarding the school's new name, kept the name change from being approved.[24][25] In spite of objections by many students and faculty, the Board of Directors again submitted the change in 1969. It finally received the legislature's approval on June 6 and the name Texas Tech University went into effect that September.[28] All of the institution's schools, except Law, became colleges.[15][29]
Texas Tech was integrated in 1961 when three African-American students were admitted. After its initial rejection of the students' enrollment and the threat of a subsequent lawsuit, the university enacted a policy to admit "all qualified applicants regardless of color".[30] The university offered its first athletic scholarship to a black student in 1967, when Danny Hardaway was recruited to play for the Red Raiders football team.[31]In 1970, Hortense W. Dixon became the first African American student to earn a doctorate from the university.[32]
In the 1960s and 1970s, the university invested US$150 million in the campus to construct buildings for the library, foreign languages, social sciences, communications, philosophy, electrical and petroleum engineering, art, and architecture. Some other buildings were significantly expanded.[33] On May 29, 1969, the 61st Texas Legislature created the Texas Tech University School of Medicine.[34] The Texas Legislature expanded the medical school charter in 1979, creating the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. TTUHSC, which is now part of the Texas Tech University System, includes Schools of Allied Health Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. It has locations in four Texas cities in addition to the main campus in Lubbock.[35] In 2011, the combined enrollment in the Texas Tech University System was greater than 42,000 students—a 48% increase since 2000. Chancellor Kent Hance reiterated plans for Texas Tech's main campus to reach enrollment of 40,000 students by 2020, with additional 5,000 students at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and 10,000 students at Angelo State University.[36]

[edit]Recent history

Texas Tech's English and Philosophy Building, with architecture influenced by English manors, faces a building of similar style for the College of Education.
In 1996, the Board of Regents of Texas Tech University created the Texas Tech University System. Former State Senator John T. Montford, later of San Antonio, was selected as the first chancellor to lead the combined academic enterprise.[37] Regents Chair Edward Whitacre, Jr., stated the move was made due to the size and complexity of the institution. "It's time", he said, "to take the university into the 21st century".[33] The Texas Tech University system originally included Texas Tech University and Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. On November 6, 2007, the voters of Texas approved an amendment to the Texas Constitution realigning Angelo State University with the Texas Tech University System.[38] Kent Hance, a Texas Tech graduate who had served as United States Representative and as one of the three elected members of the Texas Board which regulates the oil-and-gas industry, assumed the duties of chancellor on December 1, 2006.[39]
Though growth continued at Texas Tech, the university was not immune to controversy. In 2003, a third-year student at the Texas Tech School of Law filed suit against the university over its policy on free speech zones, which restricted student speech to a single "free speech gazebo".[40] The following year, a federal judge declared the policy unconstitutional.[40][41][42]
To meet the demands of its increased enrollment and expanding research, the university has invested more than $548 million in new construction since 2000. It has also received more than $65.9 million in private donations.[33] In April 2009, the Texas House of Representatives passed a bill to increase state funding for seven public universities. Texas Tech University is classified by the state as an "Emerging Research University", and is among the universities that will receive additional state funding for advancement toward "Tier 1" status. Three funds—the Research University Development Fund, the Texas Research Incentive Program, and the National Research University Benchmark Fund—have been established and will provide $500 million in grants and matching funds during fiscal years 2010 and 2011.[43] On September 2, 2009, the university announced it had received private gifts totaling $24.3 million. Of these, $21.5 million are eligible for match under the Texas Research Incentive Program.[44] In August of 2012, Texas Tech University named a new interim president after the departure of President Guy Bailey. Lawrence Schovanec, the previous Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, will take Bailey's place for a time period, subject to change by the board once a new president has been selected. Duane Nellis was named the permanent President in March 2013, following a national search.[4]
In late 2011 and throughout 2012-13, construction began on a several new buildings on campus.[45] The construction included a new $20 million dollar Petroleum Engineering and Research building, a new building to house the Rawls College of Business, two new residence halls, a $3.5 million dollar chapel, and extensive remodeling of the building that previously housed the Rawls College of Business.[45]

[edit]Academic profile

University rankings
National
Forbes[47]310[46]
U.S. News & World Report[48]160
Washington Monthly[49]225
Global
ARWU[50]401–500
Times[51]Not Ranked
By enrollment, Texas Tech is the sixth-largest university in Texas and the largest institution of higher education in the western two-thirds of the state. In the fall 2011semester, Texas Tech set a record enrollment with 32,327 students.[52] For the 2008/09 enrollment year, most students came from Texas (85.17%), followed by New Mexico, California, Oklahoma, Colorado, and Kansas.[53] Altogether, the university has educated students from all 50 US states and over 100 foreign countries.[54] Enrollment has continued to increase in recent years, and growth is on track with a plan to have 40,000 students by the year 2020.[55] From 1927 to 2008, the university awarded 160,007 bachelor's, 30,985 master's, 5,197 doctoral, and 6,477 law degrees.[56] The Princeton Review ranked Texas Tech among the 117 best colleges in the Western United States in its 2009 edition.[57][58] The 2008 Shanghai Jiao Tong Rankings placed Texas Tech University at 302 worldwide, which tied it with fellow Big 12 schools, Oklahoma and Kansas State, among others.[59] In its 2011 edition, U.S. News & World Report noted the university has a "selective" admissions policy.[60] As a state public university, Texas Tech is subject to Texas House Bill 588, which guarantees Texas high school seniors in the top 10% of their graduating class admission to any public Texas university. In 2007, 17% of incoming freshmen were admitted in this manner. About half of incoming freshmen finished in the top quarter of their graduating classes.[61]
Texas Tech University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.[62] The university offers 150 bachelor's, 104 master's, and 59 doctoral degree programs.[63] Texas Tech has five satellite campuses located in Texas—in AbileneAmarillo,FredericksburgHighland Lakes, and Junction.[64] Two satellite campuses also are in Europe, located in Quedlinburg, Germany, andSeville, Spain.[65] Additional study-abroad programs are offered in various countries, such as Denmark, England, France, and Italy.[66]
The Office of International Affairs supports and facilitates the international mission of Texas Tech University. It provides services for faculty and students, offers international educational and cultural experiences for the school and community, and contributes to the university's globalization process and its effort to grow as an international educational and research center. The International Cultural Center provides a continual series of conferences, lectures, art exhibitions, and performances.[67]

[edit]Colleges and schools

Texas Tech has expanded from its original four schools to comprise ten colleges and two schools.[63] In 2008, the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources ranked among the 30 largest schools of agriculture in the country by enrollment.[68]
In the 2010 U.S. News & World Report report on higher education, the Whitacre College of Engineering was ranked 76th in the nation.[69] The previous year, the college's Petroleum Engineering Department was ranked 10th best in the nation.[70][71] The college offers 12 engineering programs accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology.[72] On November 12, 2008, following a $25 million gift from AT&T in honor of alumnus Edward E. Whitacre, Jr, the college was formally renamed the Edward E. Whitacre, Jr. College of Engineering.[73]
Chemistry Building
The largest academic division on campus, the College of Arts and Sciences offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in a wide range of subjects from philosophy to mathematics. In 2004, the College of Mass Communications and the College of Visual and Performing Arts was created from programs that had belonged to the College of Arts and Sciences. The College of Mass Communications offers degrees in several areas, including journalism, advertising, and public relations. Programs offered through the College of Visual and Performing Arts are accredited by theNational Association of Schools of Art and Design, the National Association of Schools of Music, and the National Association of Schools of Theatre.[74]
Once the Division of Home Economics, the College of Human Sciences now offers degrees in applied and professional studies, design, human development, nutrition, hospitality, and retailing. The College of Architecture, founded in 1927, offers programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board.[75]
The Rawls College of Business, which is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, is the university's business school.[76] In 2009, Business Week ranked it 36th best among approximately 800 US public business schools.[77] The school offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in business disciplines.[78][79] From its origin in 1942, the business school was known as the Division of Commerce, until it was renamed the College of Business Administration in 1956. In 2000, following a $25 million gift from alumnus Jerry S. Rawls, the school was formally renamed the Jerry S. Rawls College of Business Administration.[15]
Architecture Building
In 1967, both the College of Education and the Texas Tech University School of Law were founded. The College of Education instructs future teachers and is accredited by theNational Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. The School of Law is an American Bar Association-accredited law school on the main campus in Lubbock.[74] The school offers Juris Doctor degrees which can be earned in conjunction with Master of Business Administration or Master of Science degrees through the adjacent Rawls College of Business.
All graduate programs offered at Texas Tech University are overseen by the Graduate School, which was officially established in 1954. The university's Honors College allows select students to design a customized curriculum that incorporates a broad range of disciplines, and offers students the opportunity for early admission into Texas Tech University’s medical and law schools.
In September 2008, the University College was established. Formerly known as the College of Outreach and Distance Education, the college was created by bringing together the Division of Off-Campus Sites and the Division of Outreach and Distance Education.[80]Texas Tech's six in-state satellite campuses are under the auspices of the college. Additionally, it oversees the Texas Tech University Independent School District.[81]
The Texas Tech University System also operates a medical school, the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. It offers Schools of Allied Health Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. While it is a discrete entity, separate from Texas Tech University, it offers joint degrees (such as MD/MBA) through coordination with the university. Further, the Health Sciences Center is located on the university's main campus in Lubbock. In addition to the Lubbock campus, TTUHSC has campuses located inAbileneAmarilloEl Paso, and Odessa.

[edit]Research

Texas Tech, in collaboration with Harvard University, has developed a treatment that may be a cure for HIV.
Classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with "high activity",[82] Texas Tech University hosts 60 research centers and institutes.[83] In 2008, a team of researchers from Texas Tech University and Harvard University announced the development of an siRNA-based treatment that may ultimately counteract the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Human cells infected with HIV, injected into rats, have been cured by the experimental treatment. Clinical trials on humans are expected to begin by 2010.[84][85][86] Texas Tech researchers also hold the exclusive license for HemoTech, a human blood substitutecomposed of bovine hemoglobin. HemoBioTech, the company marketing the technology, believes HemoTech will diminish the intrinsic toxicities that have stifled previous attempts to develop a human blood substitute.[87] On January 14, 2008, Texas Tech University announced the creation of the West Texas Influenza Research Center. The university has concluded human clinical testing of oral interferon in a five-year study of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and continues its study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[88]
Following the May 11, 1970, Lubbock Tornado that caused 26 fatalities and over $100 million in damage in Lubbock, the Wind Science and Engineering Research Center (WISE) was established. The WISE Center, which includes 56,000 square feet (5,200 m2) of indoor laboratory space, is focused on research, education, and information outreach.[89] The interdisciplinary research program studies methods to exploit the beneficial qualities of wind and to mitigate its detrimental effects. The center offers education in wind science and engineering to develop professionals who are experts in creating designs which deal effectively with problems caused by high winds. WISE Center researchers contributed significantly to the development of the Enhanced Fujita Scale for rating the strength of tornadoes.[90]
Texas Tech alumnus Rick Husband was the final commander of the Space ShuttleColumbia.
Texas Tech has made numerous contributions to NASA projects. Daniel Cooke, Computer Science Department Chair, and his colleagues are working to develop the technical content of the Intelligent Systems Program, and have been awarded a five-year budget valued at $350 million.[91] University scientists have also teamed with NASA's guidance, navigation, and control engineers to develop the Onboard Abort Executive (OAE), software capable of quickly deciding the best course of action during an ascent failure.[92][93] The Texas Tech Space Research Initiative has also partnered with NASA to perfect methods for growing fresh vegetables in space and to determine the most efficient ways to recycle wastewater.[94] In November 1996, the university dedicated the Charles A. Bassett II Pulse Laboratory to honor engineering alumnus and Gemini-era astronaut Charles A. Bassett II.[95] In total, Texas Tech has helped to produce three astronauts: Bassett, Paul Lockhart, and Rick Husband, the final commander of space shuttle Columbia.[96][97]
In 2008, the pulsed power electronics laboratory received $4 million in federal funding. Among other things, the money will be used to create compact generators for weapon systems designed to destroy improvised explosive devices (IEDs).[98] The College of Engineering’s Nano Tech Center has received approximately $20 million in grants toward its work in applied nanophotonics, the creation and manipulation of advanced materials at the nanoscale that can produce and sense light.[99] Texas Tech's Center for Advanced Analytics and Business Intelligence performsgrid computing research through collaboration with the SAS Institute that seeks to improve the speed with which large quantities of data (such as those present in genomics and global economics) can be processed.[100]
Texas Tech's College of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources has received state and federal grants for research projects including the fiber properties of cotton, the antibacterial properties of cotton fabric, and the development of chemical-warfare protective fabrics.[101] The college has also created two grass variants, Shadow Turf, a drought-tolerant turf grass that thrives in shade, and Tech Turf (marketed as Turffalo), a turf grass with the rich color and texture of Bermuda and the resilience of buffalo grass.[102][103]

[edit]Online and Regional Learning Programs

Texas Tech offers online and regional programs in addition to programs offered on the main campus.[104] There are programs that are fully online, hybrid/blended, and located at regional sites. The university offers bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees, as well as a graduate certification preparation program, at the regional sites of El Paso, Fredericksburg, Highland Lakes, Center at Junction, and Waco.
Texas Tech’s eLearning Program earned national recognition on January 10, 2013, when it ranked 11th overall among online colleges on Guide to Online Schools’ 2013 Online College Rankings.[105] In addition, it tied for first place among non-profit schools for its high student retention rate (82%), and ranked first among the four research universities listed among the top 25 in the rankings.[106] The online engineering program also gained recognition from US News and World Report, ranking 50th on their list of the best graduate online engineering programs.[107]

[edit]Campus

Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library
The Lubbock campus is home to the main academic university, law school, and medical school (Health Sciences Center). This arrangement makes it the only institution in Texas to have all three units (undergraduate institution, law school, and medical school) on the same campus.[108][109] The campus, which boasts Spanish Renaissance architecture, was described by American author James A. Michener as the "most beautiful west of the Mississippi until you get to Stanford" and by Stewart Mandel of Sports Illustrated as "easily one of the ten most beautiful campuses" he had seen.[110][111][112][113] Many buildings on campus borrow architectural elements from those found at University de Alcalá in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, and Mission San José in San Antonio.[114] A large section of the campus built between 1924 and 1951 is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as theTexas Technological College Historic District. This area is roughly bounded by 6th Street on the north, University Avenue on the east, 19th Street on the south, and Flint Street on the west.[115] In 2008, the Professional Grounds Management Society awarded Texas Tech the Grand Award for excellence in grounds-keeping.[116]
In 1998, the Board of Regents of the Texas Tech University System created the Texas Tech University Public Art Collection to enliven the campus environment and extend the educational mission of the university. It is funded by using one percent of the estimated total cost of each new building on campus.[117] The collection features pieces from artists such as Tom Otterness and Glenna Goodacre. The Texas Tech University Public Art Collection is ranked among the ten best university public art collections in the United States by Public Art Review.[118][119]
Pfluger Fountain
The university also hosts the Museum of Texas Tech University, which was founded in 1929 and is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums.[120] The museum is home to over three million objects and specimens and houses the Moody Planetarium, art galleries, a sculpture court, and a natural science research laboratory. The museum also operates theVal Verde County research site and the Lubbock Lake Landmark,[121] an archaeological site and natural history preserve in the city of Lubbock. The site has evidence of 12,000 years of use by ancient cultures on the Llano Estacado (Southern High Plains), and allows visitors to watch active archaeological digs. Visiting scientists and tourists may also participate in the discovery process. Lubbock Lake Landmark is a National Historic Landmark, which lists it on the National Register of Historic Places, and is a designated State Archaeological Landmark.[122] Texas Tech is also the location of the Southwest Collection of historical archives and the sponsoring institution of the West Texas Historical Association.[123]Located on the northern edge of the campus is the National Ranching Heritage Center, a museum of ranching history. The site spans 14 acres (0.057 km2) and is home to 38 historic structures that have been restored to their original condition. Structures represented at the center include: a linecamp, a dugout, a bunkhouse, a blacksmith shop, a cowchip house, a schoolhouse, corrals, shipping pens, windmills, chuckwagons, and a coal-burning locomotive.[124]
The university maintains a number of libraries, some general-purpose and some dedicated to specific topics such as architecture and law. Among the most notable of these are the Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library and the Vietnam Center and Archive, the nation's largest and most comprehensive collections of information on the Vietnam War.[125] On August 17, 2007, the Vietnam Center and Archive became the first US institution to sign a formalized exchange agreement with the State Records and Archives Department of Vietnam. This opens the door for a two-way exchange between the entities.[126][127]

[edit]Student life

Goin' Band from Raiderland
There are over 390 student clubs and organizations at Texas Tech.[128] Many students participate in Greek Life.[129] Texas Tech Greek Life includes 11 Panhellenic Sororities and 24 InterFraternity Council Fraternities, as well as groups in the NPHC and Multicultural Greek Council. The Student Union Building, located centrally on campus, is the hub of daily student activity. It houses restaurants, coffee shops, a book store, meeting rooms, lecture halls, movie rooms, and study areas, as well as the offices and meeting rooms of several student organizations and the Student Government Association. Directly adjacent to the Student Union Building is the School of Music, home of the Texas Tech Goin' Band from Raiderland. The 450-member band, which was awarded the Sudler Trophy in 1999, performs at all home football games and at various other events.[130]
Approximately 20% of students live on campus, and most students live on campus for at least a portion of their academic careers.[131][132] students with fewer than 30 hours of academic credit are required to live in university housing unless they receive an exemption. Specific dorms and communities exist for graduate students, athletes, and various specific interests and academic disciplines.[133]
Student Union Building
International honor societies Phi Beta Kappa (liberal arts and sciences), Delta Epsilon Psi,Beta Gamma Sigma (business), and Tau Beta Pi (engineering) have chapters at the university.[134][135][136] Professional, service, and social fraternities and sororities on campus include Alpha Phi Omega (service), Alpha Kappa Psi (business), Delta Sigma Pi (business),Phi Alpha Delta (law), Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia (music), Kappa Kappa Psi (band), and Tau Beta Sigma (band).[137][138][139][140][141] Professional development and research organizations hosted by the university include the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program, the Center for the Integration of Science Education and Research, the Society of Engineering Technologists, Student Bar Association, and the Texas Tech Forensic Union. Spirit organizations representing Texas Tech include the High RidersSaddle Tramps, and the Sabre Flight Drill Team.
The university maintains KTXT-FM 88.1, formerly a student radio station focusing on alternative, indie rock, industrial, and hip hop music. After 47 years, the station went off the air on December 10, 2008.[142] It returned in May 2009 with a different format and plans to eventually return to its former style.[143] National Public Radio station KTTZ-FM 89.1, which features classical music and news, is also found on campus. Additionally, the university owns and operates Public Broadcasting Service television station KTTZ-TV. Students run a daily newspaper, The Daily Toreador, until 2005 known as The University Daily. The university also produces a yearbook, La Ventana.

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